Methods for the Main Study

Indirect-Walking Trial Sequence --- Direct-Walking Trial Sequence --- Participants --- Real/Virtual Stimuli --- Box Layouts --- Raw Data Indirect-Walking --- Raw Data Direct-Walking

Indirect-Walking-Condition - Trial Sequence:

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Step 1: Observers were standing at Zone 0 , and were looking at a blue, a pink, a red and a yellow box. They were asked to memorize where the boxes were, and could take as much time as they need. They were not allowed to leave zone 0 to look at the boxes. They were told that the blue and the pink box, as well as the red and the yellow box were always in the same visual direction no matter which box layout as viewed from zone 0.


Plan view of testing room with one randomly chosen box layout.

Step 2: Observers walked down the long corridor and stopped either at zone a - like the colour amber , at zone b - like the colour black , or at zone c - like the colour cyan . At these shooting zones, the participant could not see the 4 boxes any more.

Step 3: A poster on the wall, thus indicating the orientation of the observer at the shooting zone, showed the colour of the box to shoot.

Step 4: Observers now used a hand-held pointer to shoot 8 times to each of the 4 boxes in a random order, which gave us 32 shooting directions.

Direct-Walking Condition - Trial Sequence (for zone b and c, and in virtual reality only):

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Step 1: Participants were standing at Zone 0 , and were looking at a blue, a pink, a red and a yellow box. They were asked to memorize where the boxes were, and could take as much time as they need. They were not allowed to leave zone 0 to look at the boxes. They were told that the blue and the pink box, as well as the red and the yellow box were always in the same visual direction no matter which box layout as viewed from zone 0.


Plan view of testing room with one randomly chosen box layout.

Step 2: As soon as the participant started walking down the long corridor, the long side of the L-shaped screen disappeared. The observer now stopped either at zone b , or at zone c . As soon as observer reached the shooting zone, the screen reappeared. At this location, the participant could not see the 4 boxes any more.

Step 3: A poster on the wall, thus indicating the orientation of the observer at the shooting zone, showed the colour of the box to shoot.

Step 4: Participants now used a hand-held pointer to shoot 8 times to each of the 4 boxes in a random order, which gave us 32 shooting directions.

Participants:

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  • 20 naïve participants aged between 18-34
  • Gender: 12 males, 8 females
  • All participants were right-handed.
  • 8 participants (6 females, 2 males) tested on: 9 box layouts; at 3 shooting zones; real and virtual world; 32 shots in a random order to the boxes => 1728 shooting directions per participant
  • 12 participants (2 females, 10 males) tested on: 4 box layouts (box layouts number 0,1,6,12); at 3 shooting zones; real and virtual; 32 shots in a random order to the boxes => 768 pointing directions per participant

Real/Virtual Stimuli:

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Real World Stimuli
Virtual World Stimuli

Box Layouts:

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There are 9 different box layouts, each box layout was tested at the three shooting zones a , b , and c , and tested in real and in virtual reality. The blue and the pink were in the same visual direction as viewed from zone 0 , the same for the red and the yellow box.